Palm oil is extracted from the flesh of the fruit of E. Guineesis using pressure. In its unrefined form, the palm oil is bright orange in color due to high amounts of carotene pigments. The oil is semi-solid at room temperature and is highly resistant to oxidation and prolonged exposure to heat. Palm oil is widely used in margarine and vegetable shortenings.
When the semi-solid palm oil is refined, it separates into palm olein and palm stearine. The palm olein has different characteristics than the palm oil, most notably that it remains completely liquid at room temperature. It is highly heat resistant, similar to palm oil, and it also resists the formation of breakdown products during frying and increases the shelf life of many products.
Although palm oil and palm olein are produced from the same plant and share many similar properties, the main difference between them is their chemical state at room temperature. Palm olein is the liquid component of palm oil obtained when the oil is separated by a process called fractionation, which came into wide use in the 1970s in Malaysia to export cooking oil to other countries. Liquid palm olein is considered the "gold standard" and is the most widely used oil for frying in the world. Palm olein and palm oil are used as ingredients in many foods, and are often confused with palm kernel oil, which is known to raise cholesterol levels.
Palm Olein (CP6) / Palm Olein (CP8) / Palm Olein (CP10)
Palm Olein (CP6) has an iodine value of 60-63. Palm Olein (CP6) is more suited to cooler climates and has cloud points of about 2°C-5°C. Because of its fatty acid composition and good oxidative stability is excellent to be used as liquid cooking oil and all the more suitable for frying.
Apart from its high quality performance, the added advantage is it does not alter the taste or flavour of fried food as it does not have any distinct fragrance. Moreover, it leaves the meal completely dry with no dripping of oil.
The RBD palm olein was used as the main lubricant owing to a greater awareness of the greenhouse effect phenomenon which has lessened the usage of conventional lubricants that affect our environment. This trend has strongly encouraged the government to use eco-friendly and biodegradable lubricants in the manufacturing industry. RBD palm olein was selected due to its superior tribological properties and large production in Malaysia. The tests were carried out using a direct lubricant flow of RBD palm olein and hydraulic oil on a plain disk at two different speeds (0.4 m/s and 4 m/s). The material used for both frictional surfaces was stainless steel. The results clearly show that the wear obtained when using the RBD palm olein was lower than that of the hydraulic oil. In addition, the coefficient of friction and wear scar diameter of the sample lubricated with RBD palm olein was remarkably lower at low speeds, and approximately the same as hydraulic oil at high speeds.
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